Ship Rant!

I’ve been asked to make my previous threat come true and do a rant about ships in games.

Here goes! Ships for game developers.

The things that I’ve seen in some games, especially older games, you wouldn’t believe it. When it comes to ships, artists have this tendency to just make things up on the spot because to do it right requires a bit of research. The result is sometimes astonishing. To give you some background, I come from a city where we really see a lot of traditional ships. And it’s those that I want to rant about. The things with sails and all that, you know. Not the boring modern ones.

The thing that ships in video games very often get wrong is the rigging, and the type of sails.

Sail types


So over the course of history, different types of sails (or rigs) developed in different places on the planet. That is the first possibility to make mistakes. A viking ship, as you see here, uses a single squareish sail (square rig) hanging from a long yard. Logically, this requires only a single mast. Most northern/western European ships from the middle ages onward used one or several of those for their mainsails (sometimes on extra masts – bigger ships are heavier and need more propulsion.) Also watch how there are several lines (ropes) – each of them has a purpose. More about that later.

There are some other major types of sail – for example, the Lateen or latin rig. This is the other major type of European sail, used for a mainsail around the Mediterranean from the Romans to Columbus. It is similar to the Viking one, but the sail itself is triangular so the yard it’s hanging from is in a diagonal position. (This is different from the triangular headsails on a lot of ships, because those don’t have a yard.)

A more modern development that’s usually seen in combination with headsails and/or square rigs is the gaff rig. It’s got beams at the top and bottom and is attached to the mast “sideways”. It rarely appears on its own.

Needless to say, because of these regional differences, a viking ship with a triangular latin rig (or with headsails – good gods…) is going to look hilarious. Wrong combination of sail and ship for the period and region.

There are other types of sail that are more typical to Asian regions and so forth. You get the idea.

Many ship types used combinations of different sails, but a tea clipper or a ship-of-the-line with a combination of Lateen and Junk rigs would just not look believable. It is going to use a combination of square rigs and headsails and perhaps a gaff rig. Difficult? Perhaps. But many of those ship types are quite iconic and people will notice that something is off about them even if they can’t put their finger on it.

Tl;dr – You shouldn’t just put any old sail on there.


And by rigging, here I mean cordage, ie. the various ropes that some ships seem to have such a whole lot of.

The only really important thing to know about this is that there is standing rigging and running rigging.

Standing rigging are usually ropes used to fasten the masts to the ship’s hull or deck. It is always under tension. A mast will be held in place by standing rigs on the sides as well as on the front (and often the back, too.) Rope ladders are also standing rigging (old ships don’t have those.)

Running rigging are the ropes that are used to control the sail’s position, i.e. its angle to the wind and its shape. Running rigging also raises and lowers the yards, spars etc on some ships. All these ropes usually run between the yards/spars/corners of the sails and the deck where they are typically fastened. They only come under tension if the wind pulls on the sail, or if used to hoist a sail.

You shouldn’t put fantasy rigging on there; you can’t go wrong if you keep to a bit of standing rigging and insert a few ropes that hoist or control the sails on top of that. It’s better to just imply the ship’s rigging than to overdo it. But the ropes that are there need to be believable. The important thing is to keep it functional.


The general thing here is that the side rudder / steering oar (starboard) is older than the stern rudder. Most European ships before 1300 had side rudders, practically all modern ships have stern rudders.


Some older ships from Northern Europe such as the viking ones use clinker planking (the planks overlap each other.) With this method, the hull is actually built first. Most other ship types (as far as I know) use carvel planking where the planks butt up against each other and the ship requires a lot more timbers (ribs.)


Holy crap, do video game ships have crazy stuff on them. Dragon heads, tons of flags, golden embellishments, incredible figureheads, elaborately painted sails.

The thing to keep in mind here is that the vast majority of vessels will never have been decorated in this manner. Fishing boats, small traders, freighters would be more believable without all this stuff, because it simply costs money to decorate ships.

Do some research here. For example, to this day scientists have not found a lot of “dragon heads”, although they did find a ton of viking ships that have nothing of the sort. Unfortunately, the entire thing about having scary looking dragon heads on viking ships might just be a myth. Who would have thought? Maybe those vikings were more practically-oriented than we thought: Go really fast, slam into the beach, run up the hill, grab everything – none of this requires decoration on your ship, it’s just gotta go fast and carry enough plunder.

The take away is that when it comes to decoration, it might be good to practice some restraint.

I hope this will benefit someone. I have noticed that ships are done better in more recent games, no doubt due to the amount of reference material on the internet and also the generally more detailed models in games these days. Let’s hope the trend continues. It really can’t hurt to understand some basics though.

Final trivia – did you know that ships with a longer waterline will go faster than smaller ones? It’s really true. The downside is that bigger ships will have a much bigger draft, so can’t operate in shallow water. This is why they usually carry ship’s boats.

OK. Enough smart-assing, I’ll leave it at that.

Picture of Havhingsten fra Glendalough by William Murphy [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (, via Wikimedia Commons.

Anti-Quake BS…

How to begin.

To explain the title, I’ve once been accused of “anti-Quake BS” with regard to some new gameplay elements I introduced to the Remake Quake (mod) project while I was on the team. I have been called and accused of a lot of other things during that time (such as “killing the Quake community”), but “anti-Quake BS” must surely take the cake. It’s creative, at least.

Well, space marines, better brace yourselves.

In the last few months, I’ve been tackling some fundamental issues. Dropping the Quake engine brought up a number of things I had been diffusely unhappy with for a long time, ever since SJ split off of the Remake Quake project.

These issues are connected to what Quake is, and what SJ automatically inherited from that project. The core gameplay of gratuitous violence and shooting things in the face to beat the level (which we actually intensified in RMQ by making it play more like DOOM).

That kind of gameplay no longer really appeals to me.

Neanderthals in make-up

I have developed a dislike toward the ultra-simple formula of “here’s a gun, now take that hill.” Pointing and clicking so the target falls over is one of the most simplistic gameplay mechanics ever. It’s somewhat shocking how many multimillion dollar games, despite being encrusted in shiny graphics and helped by tons of art talent, use this same primitive core mechanic. In other words, we advance the graphics, we hire incredible artists, but our core gameplay mechanic is about as challenging as Pong.


I mean, Minesweeper is literally more challenging than Call of Duty. Shooters have become casual games, that’s why Call of Duty sells like hotcakes. I know certain people won’t like it, but those 48% female gamers who a bunch of teenage males believe are “not real gamers” because they might largely be playing Minesweeper or Solitaire… might actually be playing the more challenging games.


But most modern shooters basically amount to club-toting neanderthals in expensive make-up. Or put differently: Frantic polishing of sixty-dollar turds instead of evolving the core gameplay into something better.

About violence

What to do about it? The story of SJ is still that of a conflict and what it does to people. There is going to be violence in it because that’s part of the setting and the narrative. Some of the factions in SJ are not only not nice, they actively hate another faction’s guts for some irrational reasons. The game is going to show that, graphically, because it matters. It is needed to drive a point home, just like Colonel Kurtz needs to get killed and soldiers need to be surfing in a war zone in Apocalypse Now to drive a point home.

But as for actual combat involving the player, I’m not going to reward the player for pointless violence anymore. It’s true that enemies have loot, which is the fuel of the game. So combat == loot. But that’s not going to be the end of it. Combat will also mean: You get more tainted; your relations to everyone in the game are affected, partly negatively; you lose resources in order to gain some; and you’ll seriously risk getting shot. Combat in SJ is going to be like attacking a cop in downtown LA. They are going to call a SWAT team on you. The player is no longer going to be all-powerful. You’ll be disabled after two or three hits.

So for combat, I’ll take a page out of Metal Gear Solid and even Mirror’s Edge rather than Quake. You’ll be able to overhear interesting chatter between enemy soldiers if you don’t attack the patrol. Heck, you might find out door codes and other goodies if you don’t kill them. You’ll be rewarded for being sneaky. You’ll be given gifts if you don’t kill certain people, just like with the little sisters in Bioshock, only they’re not little sisters here at all. You’ll be rewarded for dropping a stolen medevac beacon for your enemies after they’re beaten. And so on.

Most importantly, Scout will refuse to attack disabled enemies; she might even refuse to shoot people in the back. You get the idea.

Loot will be easier to acquire by just exploring and staying hidden. Exploration is at the heart of the game anyway, so why not make it the best, easiest way to get “fuel”?

Following this line of thinking, I have removed typical shooter weapons from the game, most importantly the shotgun. Shotguns are an icon of old school shooter games; they’re often the prime method of removing an incoming horde of zombies or whatever enemy concept you’re dealing with. Just remember DOOM. SJ is just not a shotgun type of game. Equally, SJ has no assault rifles – the icon of most recent shooter games (and of American gun culture.) This will hopefully make it abundantly clear.

Out of similar considerations, I’ll probably drop multiplayer (not co-op) despite having a design doc for it; it’s too far on the pointless-violence side of things and that’s not what the game is.

Tropes vs… quality, in fact

As well as looking into the issues surrounding violence, I looked into issues of gender. And believe me, that was not pretty. Did you know that games with exclusively female leads get a lot less money from publishers (around 40%), and also sell worse? Bummer. Not to mention the ubiquitous issue that game artists apparently routinely take their reference images straight from Playboy but are unfazed by accusations of sexism.

Naturally, I’ve been watching Tropes vs. Women in Video Games. I’ve had hours-long discussions about it. I’ve looked into Gamergate. I’ve looked into gun culture, mass shootings (did you know that almost all shooters are male?), and issues surrounding our idea of masculinity (which seems to be from the stone age.) I’ve seen how women are harassed in online games. I’ve looked into sexism. And after weeks of research, I have to say that 99% of what the feminists say is unfortunately true. I had no idea what women have to deal with every day. I was a little shocked. It is like looking into the abyss, and what has been seen cannot be unseen.

Don’t believe me? Look at this. Then watch this. Then look at this. Then tell me again that there is no problem.

You might call me a “social justice warrior” or insult my manhood or whatever else it is that people on the internet tend to do to “gender traitors”, but I’ve made damn sure Scout’s Journey does a lot more than merely pass the Bechdel test.

If it’s any consolation, I also made sure that the major cast character who happens to be male is going to be likeable. I had to partly rewrite and better expose his character after I realized that I originally motivated him largely by way of his girlfriend, which didn’t do justice to either character. She is still going to die, but it will affect all of her friends, not just this guy, and as a result of these changes he’s gotten a lot more exposure because he needed his own motives.

Self-censorship out of fear of feminist mafia? Not at all. Introspection and resulting improvement. A win-win type of deal.

Media critics are not really the enemy, criticism actually helps to improve things if you are willing to listen. It’s amazing how many people in games keep saying “all feedback is good feedback” and then proceed to rail against feminist media critics. Logic has left the building along with decency.

Tl;dr Scout’s Journey is changing, most likely for the better.



If you use runes…

… please do it right.

Don’t just write “ASDFGHJKL” in some Windows rune font onto stuff in your game.


Runes are a historical alphabet. You might be writing “I suck dick” in runes without noticing it, if you don’t pay a minimal amount of attention. So go the extra mile, look at the runic alphabets on Wikipedia, make a cheat sheet for yourself, and be sure what you write. Don’t be a cheapskate.

It is a shame that Western game developers don’t respect history. What’s more, they treat it like a candy store they can freely rob from and just arrange the stuff until it looks good.

That is a horrible approach. Every time I see random runes or Vikings with horned helmets in some game, I get pissed. They are trying to sell me a shoddy product. They didn’t even do their basic research. They apparently assume I am some stupid twelve year old who just wants to lob some heads off. Dammit, I am 40. I have broad interests. I have an education. I want these game devs to do their damn research or I won’t feel incited to buy those games. There is not a single Viking game that is actually GOOD and has done its research. Just like with movies.

Anyway, both the runic lines above say “hello world”. The upper is in dotted Danish or medieval runes (the dots were added to denote that a U should be understood to mean a V or a W, for instance.) The lower one is in the older common germanic runes. Those have no dots and no weird dual meanings. They also look sharp, so they are well suited to use by artists in games. “Elder Futhark” is what you probably want to google.

I hope you can read the Latin ones (you did know that they are called Latin script, right.)

This is one of my pet peeves with games. The other, as you will one day find out if you keep reading, is rigging and general construction of ships in games. Oh. My. Gods. Those things would never swim.

Unity sale rumour

Word on the street is that Unity may be getting sold. The entire company, lock stock and barrel. Hmmm.

Depending on who the buyer is, this could be good or bad news, but I think it might be one of the large tech companies if it’s true at all. I reserve judgement, but I don’t really like the idea of depending on some tech monster company’s whims to make my game. Their only interest is profit, which means they’ll dump their software and its users when they feel like it. I’d rather use an engine that’s made by an actual game company.

Funny thing is that a lot of people are now clamoring for the supposed benefits of open source engines. Hey, that gives you full control over everything, and makes you totally independent, right?


People are forgetting that the open source attitude to bugs is “fix them yourself.” You don’t have full control over an open source engine unless you either are an experienced C/C++ programmer or can afford to hire one / are successful at recruiting one. And then you’ll have a new dependency on that person.

The mindset in the open source world is totally different from the one it takes to make commercial games. There is a lack of discipline and commitment there. This is why open source games have never taken off. Read my previous blog posts if you want more insight.

Not to mention that maintaining and fixing a modern game engine is a shit ton of work, probably too much work for most indie developers.

Open source is not the perfect candy dreamland that some people seem to think it is. It doesn’t really solve more problems than it creates. It is not a substitute for something like Unity.

Anyway, I’ll be watching the development around the Unity engine curiously, as will a lot of others.

Unreal 4 better be good.

Friends in Unlikely Places


Found a better way to transfer .map to .obj after reading the tip somewhere on Instead of q3map2 one loads the map into Q4Radiant (of all things) and then simply select everything and export selected as .obj.


This is the q3map2 version – as we saw before, it looks like a shattered mirror. The geometry of the version exported from Quake 4 (upper image) is very clean, and a single “tris to quads” in Blender gives you a workable mesh.

This will save me a huge amount of time.

In theory, this also means that you can easily map in Radiant and export to Unity. You just need Quake 4.

Currently still looking at engines, not decided yet. It can be done in both Unity and UE4 though, I’m sure.

And Another

I realize not everyone loves to read a wall of text. So here’s a synopsis.

SJ is switching engine because I have the feeling that the open source engines are not dependable and their authors not committed enough. My fear is that a nasty bug pops up when the game ships (or during testing), and the engine coder is not motivated to fix it at that time. With a commercial game, this is a pretty bad scenario that could get ugly fast, especially that late in the development process. Consider people writing angry reviews and wanting their money back – this is something that can’t be allowed to happen.

The decision was not rash; there is a two-year history and a collection of issues behind it (even longer if I count the mod project preceding it.) It is not a personal thing, it is a management decision for the best of the project. I realize that such decisions might be viewed as harsh. Consider that they are also harsh on the one who has to make them.

One could make the argument that these engines are free, thus it can’t be expected for them to be fully dependable. From their perspective, that is correct and it is hard to argue with that.

From my perspective it matters little, because what good is any engine that might fail at a critical time? No matter if it is free. Consider that Unity is also free.

I hope this is easier to read.

An Open Word

There’s trouble ahead.

Isn’t there always? Any creative effort has to struggle with obstacles. But there is no doubt that the one Scout’s Journey has to deal with now is an especially depressing one.

The game might have to switch engine. Mid production. Awesome.

In a recent talk with FTE’s author it was implied that I shouldn’t count on SJ-related bugfixes nor tech support. I have been encouraged to fork the engine and fix them myself.

I have come to the conclusion that this idea is illusionary. I don’t understand the innards of a Quake engine, and especially not those of FTE. I could probably learn it, but that would take so much time and effort that it’s unrealistic. I cannot realistically fix the bugs in FTE nor do tech support once the game releases. FTE is basically a black box to me. Without support, a black box’s only use is as a paperweight.

And there are bugs in FTE. Some have gone unfixed for well over a year. Physics and realtime shadows are far from production ready; these things are currently novelty features, I would say. There are also PVS-related bugs that require knowledge I definitely don’t have.

I don’t know where to find a programmer who can fix a Quake-based engine. It’s specialist work. Not that I could afford it anyway.

The sad thing is that I like FTE. But it’s clearly not suited to do a modern first-person RPG in; its additional features such as realtime lighting were probably always intended to use with Quake and Quake-like games and developed with a Quake-modding mindset. For what I want to do, that mindset won’t cut it.

This same problem also affects the Darkplaces engine. Its features do not extend past the Quake-modding scenario and it’s not actively developed by its original author anymore. So that’s not a solution either.

Another sad thing is that John Carmack’s GPL engine dream is probably dead. Almost no one used the GPL Quake engines to make new, original games with. There are more games that used the commercial idtech license than open source idtech ones. A major issue is that the advanced GPL Quake engines are under-documented and relatively arcane. Perpetual bugs and lack of tech support are another. Considering Unity and UDK are *free* to make a game with, well-tested and supported by well motivated teams, there is little reason to not simply use one of those. UE4 is 20 bucks a month plus five percent of the sales. And for a rock solid game engine with tech support and documentation, five percent is nothing.

Where to go from here?

First of all, Scout’s Journey isn’t going to die. It’s too far along to quit, and frankly it’s also too good to quit. This is just another obstacle and it’s not insurmountable. I will have to port a certain amount of code – all the RPG things are basically done – which is a minor nuisance but much better than being left in the cold with obscure engine bugs. The assets are all portable – luckily I already switched away from BSP half a year ago. Sixth sense, probably. Polygons are polygons, art assets are art assets, sound files are sound files and writing is writing, no engine required.

Second, the options are, in the end, Unity or UE4. I pondered finishing a prototype on FTE, which is feasible, but admittedly the entire situation depresses me so much that I can’t stand it. The less time spent looking at a trainwreck, the better. It’s just super depressing and that has to stop.

Third, this probably marks my exit from the active Quake modding scene. The engine was the last link. Scout’s Journey was still using the Quake engine because it organically developed from the unlucky foster child that was the Remake Quake project. I will continue to play and pass on knowledge and I’ll remain with the staff for as long as they want me, though.

Now for the positive things.

Getting rid of Quake might also be liberating. To be honest, every time you talk about game development with someone from the Quake community, they AUTOMATICALLY assume you are making a shooter game. I can’t count the number of times I’ve been asked “when can I shoot stuff in your game?” and the number of times I’ve had to explain that it just isn’t that kind of game. I’m sorry. It just isn’t. Shooting stuff is not at the top of the agenda here. “Will the physics be like Quake?” Well duh, um, actually, who cares. Probably not.

Full disclosure:

I find most shooter games incredibly inane, shallow and meaningless. I can usually only enjoy a shooter if it has been enriched with a certain amount of brains (Bioshock) or story (Stalker.) And I relish it when a first-person game dares to drop the gun. Mirror’s Edge is a prime example of what a first person game can be if you take people’s guns away for the most part. It was an eye-opener in so many ways (how many games have people actually hugging?). I would like to go one step further and just drop the player into the world without a lot of obvious threats and without a weapon. The first level of Scout’s Journey has exactly three enemies, the first of which can just be avoided. Later levels have patrols, but engaging them (and how you engage them) is completely optional. Scout is not a beefcake space marine. The only time when you will meet opposition is when you [SPOILER].

It is just tiresome to talk about shooter games all day when you really want to do something different, but no one understands what you want to do. Unity/Unreal have a much broader spectrum of games. Not shooting things in the face all the time might be better received there.

I keep hoping there is an audience for less violent, exploration based, problem solving, spiritual, soul-searching, more human and truly mature (and I don’t mean that in the “lol boobs” kind of way, I mean mature in the full sense of the word) first person games.  Leaving the FPS modding community behind might actually help me to get there.

Interesting times. For now I will concentrate on assets and other engine-independent things. There’s enough work to do that has nothing to do with programming. People (especially FPS people) always underestimate how much work is in writing and concept art, for instance. I’ll be busy enough.




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